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The Bus Factor - Why your ‘best’ developer is your biggest problem

From wikipedia, a “Bus Factor” is:

an irreverent measurement of concentration of information in a single person, or very few people. The bus factor is the total number of key developers who would need to be incapacitated, as by getting hit by a bus, to send the project into such disarray that it would not be able to proceed


From my personal experience, I'd say that more than 70% of projects suffer from a bus factor of 1. It only takes one specific person in those teams to not be able to be there for the project to halt or slowly die in painful agony as people try to makeup for lost knowledge.

How do you recognize the bus factor?

in your mind, go through each person in your team and ask yourself if

the project could go on pretty much as usual if they were fired tomorrow. (fired is important because people who leave in good terms can still play ball and get you through tough stuff they worked on through phone conversations).

If you say “no” or even hesitate about the answer, you’ve found the bus factor in your team.

How do you get rid of the bus factor?

Most of the collaboration techniques you’ll find in many agile methodologies like XP try to solve the idea of the bus factor, but you don’t have to be agile to use those techniques.


  • Use daily standups to share critical information
  • program in pairs every once in a while, or at least on key components of the system
  • do code reviews on every piece of code that gets checked in
  • do weekly half hour or one hour presentations by team members about interesting stuff they did this week
  • Ask the bus factor carrier to teach someone else from the team to do their work and vice versa. Tell them that next week they will be working alone on that material so they should get ready for that by working together on it.

The biggest bus factor is you

As a team leader, you might just be the biggest bus factor carrier of them all. What happens if you get fired tomorrow? can the team go on without you?

Your biggest challenge as a team lead, over a long period of time would be to make yourself dispensable – to make the team mature enough to continue on day to day things without needing you. Removing yourself as a bottleneck is one of the best things you can do for yourself and your team.

« The 3 maturity stages of a software team and how scrum fails to identify them | Main | My team keeps breaking their promises. What can I do? »

Reader Comments (7)

this is one of the reasons why in scrum we have a SM and a PO. Yes their role is different, if they are a good pair, they could temporary take over each others positions.
It does not make the bus (or truck as I know it) factor == 2. But at least to higher then 1.
That is also why it is good to be away to conferences from time to time, your team learn's to deal with a SM / PO who is absent.

May 17, 2010 | Unregistered CommenterYvesHanoulle

And again, why don't i want the job security of being the "bus factor"?

May 17, 2010 | Unregistered Commenterjake

In this day and age where redundancies in IT are common (offshoring to India etc), I would much prefer to have the bus factor and make myself more valuable to the employer.

It's dog eat dog out there so I'm afraid I don't agree with your article on a personal level, but to better the team i can see your point.

I want to keep my job!

May 18, 2010 | Unregistered CommenterLygpt

In my experience, the reason so many projects have a bus factor of 1 is that most projects only have one good developer with the rest being medicore. No amount of pairing or code standups will make those so-so programmers become good. As soon as one other good developer is added to the project the bus factor is halved.

May 18, 2010 | Unregistered CommenterPepe

@Pepe. Exactly, it's about skill+knowledge, not just knowledge. But programming is not the only relevant skill. How many people on a typical team can produce pleasing UIs, or readable manuals, or efficient and non-brittle tests, or team motivation?

May 19, 2010 | Unregistered CommenterPete Austin

@Jake, @Lygpt, I won't be hiring you today as I'm looking for developers who can collaborate and share ideas to produce a better project. I'm also looking for people who can grow the team around them so that I can move them to new, more challenging positions where they belong. Anyway, thanks very much for your time today and good look in the future!


May 19, 2010 | Unregistered CommenterIvan

I'm a new team leader and my project suffer from a bus factor but he is in India (because of the offshoring).
How do you process, when your deadlines are so close that you hardly have enough time to implement the new functionalities ?

December 26, 2010 | Unregistered Commenterfreenaut

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